Diagnostic and Therapeutic Colonscopy & Endoscopy

Dr. Sampat’s practice specialty is Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, encompassing diseases of the digestive tract, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.  In addition, Dr. Anu Sampat specializes in multiple stomach related conditions such as Abdominal Pain, Acid Reflux Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Celiac Disease, Constipation, and Hepatitis.




A colonoscopy is a procedure that lets your doctor look inside your entire large intestine. An instrument called a colonoscope, commonly called a “scope” is used for the procedure. A scope has a tiny camera attached at the end of a long, thin tube. The procedure lets your doctor visualize any abnormalities such as inflamed tissue, abnormal growths, and/ or ulcers.

Your doctor may recommend a colonoscopy for a number of reasons:

  • To look for early signs of cancer in the colon and rectum
  • To look for causes of unexplained changes in bowel habits
  • To evaluate symptoms like abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and weight loss
  • Your doctor can also remove polyps from your colon during a colonoscopy

How is a colonoscopy performed?

An upper GI endoscopy is conducted at a hospital or an outpatient center.  An intravenous (IV) needle is placed in a vein in the arm through which a sedative will be given. Sedatives help patients stay relaxed and comfortable. While patients are sedated, the doctor and medical staff monitor vital signs.

You will begin the exam lying on your side on the exam table, usually with your knees drawn toward your chest.  The doctor will insert a colonoscope into your rectum.  The scope which is long enough to reach the entire length of your colon – it contains a light and a tube (channel) that allows the doctor to pump air into your colon.  The air inflates the colon, which provides a better view of the lining of the colon.  When the scope is moved or air is introduced, you may feel abdominal cramping or the urge to have a bowel movement.

The colonoscope also contains a tiny video camera at its tip.  The camera sends images to an external monitor so the doctor can study the inside of your colon.  The doctor can also insert instruments through the channel to take tissue samples (biopsies) or remove polyps or other areas of abnormal tissue.

After the exam, it takes about 20 minutes to begin to recover from the sedative.  You’ll need someone to take you home because it can take up to a day for the full effects of the sedative to wear off.  Don’t dive or go back to work for the rest of the day.

If your doctor removed a polyp during your colonoscopy, you may be advised to eat a special diet temporarily.

You may feel bloated or pass gas for a few hours after the exam, as you clear the air from your colon.  Walking may help relieve any discomfort.

You may also notice a small amount of blood with your first bowel movement after the exam.  Usually this isn’t cause for alarm.  Consult our doctor if you continue to pass blood or blood clots or if you have persistent abdominal pain or a fever of 100° F (37.8° C) or higher.


Upper GI endoscopy is a procedure that uses a lighted, flexible endoscope or “scope” to see inside the upper GI tract. The upper GI tract includes the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

Your doctor may recommend an upper GI endoscopy for a number of reasons:

  • To determine the cause of abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Gastric reflux
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Anemia
  • Bleeding in the upper GI tract

Upper GI endoscopy can also be used to remove stuck objects, including food, and to treat conditions such as bleeding ulcers. It can also be used to biopsy tissue in the upper GI tract. During a biopsy, a small piece of tissue is removed for later examination with a microscope.

How is upper GI endoscopy performed?

Upper GI endoscopy is conducted at a hospital or an outpatient center.
Patients may receive a local, liquid anesthetic that is gargled or sprayed on the back of the throat. The anesthetic numbs the throat and calms the gag reflex. An intravenous (IV) needle is placed in a vein in the arm through which a sedative will be given. Sedatives help patients stay relaxed and comfortable. While patients are sedated, the doctor and medical staff monitor vital signs.

During the procedure, patients lie on their back or on their side on an examination table. An endoscope is carefully fed down the esophagus and into the stomach and duodenum. A small camera mounted on the endoscope transmits a video image to a video monitor, allowing close examination of the intestinal lining. Air is pumped through the endoscope to inflate the stomach and duodenum, making them easier to see. Special tools that slide through the endoscope allow the doctor to perform biopsies, stop bleeding, and remove abnormal growths.

IRC Treatment for Hemorrhoids

IRC Infrared Coagulation for Hemorrhoid Treatment

What are Hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids are swelling in the rectum or anal area that may protrude through the anus on straining. Internal hemorrhoids develop inside the anus. The most common symptoms are bleeding during/after bowel movements on protrusion through the anus upon straining. External hemorrhoids develop around the anus and can cause irritation and pain. They can be felt as a firm lump or lumps around the anus.

What causes Hemorrhoids?

The exact cause of hemorrhoids is unknown, but a number of factors listed below, are known to contribute to hemorrhoid disease:

  • Aging
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea
  • Pregnancy
  • Heredity
  • Faulty bowel function due to overuse of laxatives or enemas
  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Spending long periods of time on the toilet

What are the symptoms of hemorrhoids?

Some of the symptoms may include:

  • Bleeding during or after bowel movements
  • Blood when wiping
  • Protrusion during bowel movements
  • Itching in the anal area
  • Pain
  • Sensitive lump

 IRC (Infrared Coagulation) A Treatment for Hemorrhoids – In Office Procedure

What is IRC (Infrared Coagulation)?

Since its introduction 20 years ago, infrared coagulation has become the world’s leading office treatment for hemorrhoids. This non-surgical treatment is fast, well tolerated, and remarkably complication-free. A small probe is placed above the hemorrhoid and a few short bursts of infrared light are applied. The infrared light quickly coagulates the vessels that provide the hemorrhoid with blood, causing the hemorrhoid to shrink and recede. Shrinkage of the hemorrhoidal tissue may take a few weeks. This procedure is performed by Dr. Sampat, a Board Certified Gastroenterologist, as an in office procedure. The procedure lasts 5-10 minutes and is performed in our accredited office facility. No pain is felt during the procedure. There are no post–treatment effects in 99% of patients. Usually 1-3 treatments are required. In general treated hemorrhoids do not reoccur.

Barrett’s esophagus is a term used to describe any change in the visible and microscopic appearance of the inner lining of the esophagus (food tube) where it joins the stomach. It is thought to be related to injury to the esophagus from chronic acid reflux.

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the intestinal tract. It is caused by inflammation of the inner lining of the small intestine by the immune system in the presence of gluten – which is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. Symptoms include abdominal pain, gas/bloating, diarrhea, and unexplained weight loss in association with eating gluten.

Colon cancer or cancer of the large intestine – if caught early, can often be completely cured. To look for early signs of cancer in the colon, a colonoscopy is recommended.

Constipation is a common GI disorder defined as infrequent bowel movements and/or difficulty passing stools. There are several common causes of and treatments for constipation.

Diverticulosis is a condition in which small pouches or bulges (called diverticula) develop in the large intestine (colon). Most people with diverticulosis never have any symptoms. However, occasionally the pockets may become inflamed in a condition called diverticulitis, which typically causes abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea.

GERD is a chronic disease that occurs when stomach acid or bile flows into the esophagus (food pipe) and irritates the lining. Acid reflux and heartburn more than twice a week may indicate GERD.  Symptoms include burning pain in the chest that usually occurs after eating and worsens when lying down. Relief from lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications is usually temporary.  A stronger medication may be needed.

Gastritis is inflammation of the stomach. This may be due to medications (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, etc.) or a bacterial infection of the stomach called Helicobacter pylori.

Helicobacter pylori are bacteria that can infect the inner lining of the stomach. This infection can cause inflammation of the stomach lining (called gastritis), ulcers, and rarely even stomach cancer.

Hemorrhoids are usually caused from straining during bowel movements, obesity, or pregnancy. Discomfort is a common symptom, especially during bowel movements or when sitting. Other symptoms include itching and bleeding. A high-fiber diet can be effective, along with over-the-counter medications, such as stool softeners. In some cases, a medical procedure to remove the hemorrhoid may be needed to provide relief.

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. Some people have no symptoms whereas others develop yellow discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes, poor appetite, vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Hepatitis may be temporary (acute) or long term (chronic) depending on whether it lasts for less than or more than six months. Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, but it can also progress to chronic hepatitis and sometimes result in acute liver failure. Over time the chronic form may progress to liver failure, liver cancer, or scarring of the liver.

The cause of irritable bowel syndrome isn’t well understood. A diagnosis is often made based on symptoms. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation. Some people can control their symptoms by managing their diets, lifestyle, and stress. Others may need medication and counseling.

Pancreatitis may start suddenly and last for days, or it can occur over many years. It has many causes, including gallstones and chronic, heavy alcohol use. Symptoms include upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment usually requires hospitalization. Once the patient is stabilized doctors treat the underlying cause.